Thursday, 10 March 2016

Research Puzzles: NL Hawkyard

Another example of conflicting casualty information but this one is plain weird as the two pieces of information are wildly different. Norman Lewis Hawkyard served as Trooper 26371 Commander-in-Chief’s Bodygaurd (he had previous service with the Cape Mounted Rifles, discharged “worthless character” and as a Corporal Herschel Native Police).

The South African Field Force casualty roll shows he died of disease at Charlestown, Natal on May 6th, 1901. The Times (surname spelt Hawkeyard) confirms this adding that he succumbed to enteric fever. The medal roll and the nominal roll (WO127) show very clearly that he was killed in action at Aliwal North, Cape Colony on May 6th, 1901. Which is correct? The two locations are a seven hour drive apart, so the location and cause really are in conflict.

To resolve this we have one other source to consult: In Memoriam (Steve Watt, University of Natal, 2000). This is a marvellous reference work showing the burial location of thousands of Anglo-Boer War fatalities. The entry for Hawkyard show he is buried in Newcastle, Natal just 45 minutes away from Charlestown. With this evidence it is more likely Hawkyard died in Natal rather than the Cape Colony, and he succumbed to disease. There was no fighting in this part of Natal in May 1901 (or in Aliwal North for that matter). Where does the killed in action information come from? It is impossible to tell.


Hawkyard’s QSA medal is currently for sale with LiverpoolMedals, who may have acquired it from eBay where it was offered for sale in December 2015. Worryingly Liverpool Medals choose to state that Hawkyard was killed in action and ignore the died of disease stated in the casualty roll. I did write to them with this information, which they have ignored. The premium for a killed in action is higher than that for a died of disease. 

Caveat Emptor!

Wednesday, 2 March 2016

The Last Post - a major revision

The Last Post was compiled in 1903 by Mildred Dooner to commemorate the officers who died during the Anglo-Boer War. These officers “died heroic deaths” and it was her aim that their memory should not “fade into oblivion”. Dooner, the daughter of Colonel WT Dooner, compiled her information from a variety of sources; casualty lists, memorials and correspondence. Dooner recognises her list may not be entirely accurate. There has been no revision to The Last Post until now using the updated casualty roll in The Register.

Dooner also included two appendices one for nurses and the other for war correspondents. Nurses are an obvious choice and were beloved by the officers and men, it was the nurses who endeavoured to keep the sick and wounded alive. The war correspondent is a somewhat odd choice as these men (and one woman) merely reported the war, they did not fight or help the sick and wounded. Indeed many officers did not like war correspondents, they resented their quest for information and many thought their reports biased and unhelpful. Although some senior officers manipulated the press. However, this information exists nowhere else, modern day researchers must be thankful to Dooner for this anomaly.

To revise Dooner I have checked every entry in her book against the casualty rolls and a variety of other sources but primarily the medal rolls, war memorials and The Times newspaper.  I have verified 1,159 entries, these include 14 war correspondents and 10 nurses. Unfortunately a number of errors and inaccuracies have crept in. 

There are three duplicate entries: Betty/Kemmis-Betty, Birch/Burch, Chapman/Clapham. Dooner has included four officers who died after the war but not from related illness or wounds. Another, FE Hancock, was not apparently serving when he died of enteric fever in 1902. The Official Casualty Roll shows him as a civilian and the medal roll indicate he was entitled to the “South Africa 1902” clasp. It is not clear if Hancock was serving the military in a civilian capacity. Dooner does include one civilian, Mr F Chapman, a farmer, was a guide to the British forces attacking Willow Grange (23-11-1899) when he was shot dead. Two men were not commissioned officers when they were killed, G Falcon and A Spencer (Cape Medical Staff Corps) and there is no indication they were about to be commissioned. The unit for Lt AG Warren is incorrect, he was in the Cape Police not the Cape Mounted Rifles.

For the vast majority Dooner has given the exact cause of death, “enteric” instead of “disease” as often seen in the Official Casualty Roll. However, for some the exact cause is not shown which may be to protect the sensibilities of the family. Lt HG Berghuys, Kitchener’s Horse “died of wounds..in Feb., 1901”, in fact he was murdered by Trooper F Carpenter in a row over leave in November 1900. Trooper Carpenter was executed. Four officers committed suicide (as per Official Casualty Roll), others died of self-inflicted wounds. Cpt MMD Morrison according to Dooner died of asthma, the Official Casualty Roll shows “Died of wounds Revolver, self inflicted”.

There is one man listed who I cannot trace in any source as a fatal casualty: Captain EB Muller, Kaffrarian Rifles killed at Ramathlabana 31-03-1900 with Colonel Plumer’s column during the relief of Mafeking. There was a Captain EB Muller, Kaffrarian Rifles who survived the war, he was not involved in the relief of Mafeking neither were the Kaffrarian Rifles. Then there is the case of Lt WBM Carruthers, Canadian Mounted Rifles. Carruthers was widely reported as being killed at Brakspruit March, 3rd 1901, naturally Dooner picked this up and included him in The Last Post. Carruthers was not killed in the war, but died in 1910 from tuberculosis apparently contracted on service in South Africa.

As to the omissions from the The Last Post I have traced 22 officers, one war correspondent and 20 nurses who died in South Africa during the war. Of the 22 officers 16 are from colonial units, a group Dooner admitted having difficulty finding information about. I have also included in this group Captain HH Morant, Bushveldt Carbineers, who was executed by the British for murdering Boer civilians. Dooner may have deliberately left him out. The additional war correspondent turns out to be the most interesting WH Mackay. Mackay, from Scotland, was a newspaper editor in Pretoria and Reuters agent at the outbreak of war. He remained in Pretoria and handled the telegraph communications between Winston Churchill when he was a prisoner and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill. Mackay is also credited with breaking the news of the relief of Mafeking to Britain. News of the relief reached Pretoria on the same day, May 17th, Mackay bribed an engine driver to take his despatch to Lourenco Marques in Portuguese East Africa where it was sent on reaching Britain the next day. He died suddenly in Pretoria in July 1900. I have traced information on his death to a notice in the Dundee Evening Post, July 21st. Mackay is on the War Correspondents memorial in St Paul's Cathedral, London and on the War Correspondents medal roll, but is not shown as deceased. A further 25 officers and two nurses died outside of South Africa or after the war in South Africa.

Other revisions to Dooner include adding first names, correcting minor errors in the biographical information, and these records also have medal entitlements, memorials and gazetteer information. Biographical information has been added where possible to the "new" records. Having revised Dooner the numbers of officer, nurse and war correspondent fatalities directly attributable to the war can now be stated as:

Officers: 1,187 (plus 25 died outside South Africa or after the war in South Africa)
War Correspondents: 14
Nurses: 30 (plus two died after the war)

Dooner has been re-printed in book form and electronically (for free), one version can be found here. Dooner's text has also been included uncritically on various websites which will only serve to mislead the unwary.

Tuesday, 16 February 2016

11th Hussars: a rare QSA?

Whenever I read the words "rare QSA", I ask "How do they know?"; "they" usually being a dealer.

I may be too cynical, but there is much about the QSA for which is there is no hard evidence, no facts and figures upon which to judge such a statement. Most dealers never cite a source for what is an inducement to the buyer to purchase the medal now, "fools rush in......."

As I create The Register of the Anglo-Boer War I am building up the data upon which we can answer with a great degree of certainty that a QSA is truly rare based upon a host of factors; unit, sub-unit, clasps, rank and if you want surname, place of origin, casualty details; anything you fancy really.

This article was prompted by the offer for purchase of the QSA group to Pte 4208 AE Eltringham 11th Hussars, described as a "rare QSA" and "QSA possibly unique to regiment with this clasp combination.". No sources cited, most dealers are experienced so they may be correct, but it could be Dealer X just hasn't seen as many QSAs to the 11th Hussars as another dealer.

The only way to certify such statements is to look at the facts. Published information states between 108 (National Army Museum and British Empire),  110 (angloboerwar.com), 114 (North East Medals)  and 315 (DNW) men served in the war. The 11th Hussars did not serve in the war as a unit, they were stationed in Egypt, therefore it is likely not many men served and those that did would be attached to other units. Most of these sources quoted are just looking at the medal roll for the 11th Hussars itself, the detachment sent to Natal that became besieged in Ladysmith. The medal rolls show five officers and 99 men (104 in total) served in the Defence of Ladysmith attached to a variety of units; 5th Lancers, 5th Dragoon Guards, 18th Hussars, 19th Hussars and Army Veterinary Department. What most ignore that DNW alludes to with its figure of 315 is that many more 11th Hussars serving in South Africa are found on other unit rolls. 

How many men of the 11th Hussars served in South Africa? The Register shows 304 (18 officers and 286 men), about 40% of a typical cavalry regiment, which is a large number for a unit that did not go overseas. However, not all of these men were serving with the regiment in Egypt in 1899. An analysis of the service numbers and enlistments dates shows that 178 men had served between 5 years and 11 years 11 months; these men had served the minimum term of five years and were eligible to go on the reserve. Eleven men had served 12 years or more. Ninety-seven men had served 5 years or less, the majority of these (80) served in the Defence of Ladysmith. The contingent besieged in Ladysmith would have mostly come from the regiment in Egypt. Therefore the vast majority of the 11th Hussars who served were reservists called up in England and allotted to other units serving in at the front.

The men of the 11th Hussars served with a total of 34 units including a number of colonial units. DNW stated that most were attached to the "5th Lancers and 8th Hussars." The figures do not bear this out:

Attached Units (largest contingents):
  • Remounts:                  145
  • 6th Dragoon Guards:   70
  • 5th Dragoon Guards:   49
  • 5th Lancers:                 21
  • 19th Hussars:               20
  • 18th Hussars:               14
  • 8th Hussars:                 14
Many served in both the 6th Dragoon Guards and the Remounts.

The number of 11th Hussars that served in South Africa is three times greater than widely believed, but how many medals are named to the 11th Hussars, how rare is that QSA?

When men served on attachment it is not always obvious which unit is on the QSA. Looking at medals on the market for the 11th Hussars it appears that "11th Hussars" is on all QSAs except for the men who served with the 6th Dragoon Guards and 19th Hussars (Defence of Ladysmith clasp).

Attached Remounts only: Ptes 2992 Stannard, 3088 Warne, 2971 Ainsworth
Attached AVD: Sgt 3627 J McElhinney 
Attached 5th Dragoon Guards: Pte 3451 J Moore 
Attached 5th Lancers: Pte 2639 WAL Lewis 

Pte 3239 CA Cook, 11th Hussar reservist, served with the 6th Dragoon Guards and the Remounts. His QSA and KSA are named to the "6th Dragoon Guards". However, a number of men are not on the 6th Dragoon Guards roll, but are marked as "attached 6th Dragoon Guards" on the Remounts roll. Their medals may be named 11th Hussars and not 6th Dragoon Guards like Cook's medals.

Pte 4231 J Wood, 11th Hussar reservist, served with the 19th Hussars in the defence of Ladysmith. His QSA is named to the 19th Hussars and his KSA is named to the 11th Hussars.

This straw poll would seem to indicate that the majority about 250 of QSAs issued to the 11th Hussars are named "11th Hussars". In the scheme of things 250 is a small number of QSAs, but not rare as such; frequency of 11th Hussars medals on the market is a different consideration, they do not appear often.

What then of Pte Eltringham's clasp combination of  "Johannesburg,Diamond Hill,CC,OFS", is that unique? Yes, it is and only two others have that combination with other clasps.

This research has shown that significant numbers of men from cavalry regiments served with the Remounts. What needs to be established is how many of these men are not on the regimental rolls, and are "new" as such increasing the numbers served as we have seen for the 11th Hussars.

Sunday, 24 January 2016

Reunites: How to, using The Register

All collectors of medals and many families searching for their ancestor's medals will be looking for a missing medal (or medals) to make a group whole again. Effecting a reunite is a holy grail, and generally takes luck more than anything.

The internet and databases are improving the chances of a re-unite. The internet makes it possible to advertise for a re-unite using forums and message boards, databases allow records of medals offered for sale to be kept. The trick is now to unite the two to actively join the seeker with the seller.

The Register makes this possible. The Register now shows records of QSAs and KSAs and other medals that have been offered for sale. There are over 17,600 records of medals for sale from auctions, medal dealers and also medals in a private collection, at least you know the medal exists. Amongst these records I have seen many possible reunites - some are listed below.

Just this weekend records in The Register allowed me to contact a family researcher seeking a QSA to reunite with his great-grandfather's Distinguished Conduct Medal - QMS 1261 T Hogan, King's Royal Rifle Corps . The QSA had appeared on a dealer's list. The family researcher had originally posted a request on the British Medals Forum in 2013.

You can use The Register to directly register an interest in a soldier by simply buying that man's record (or woman, The Register holds records for nurses). Every time that record is updated you receive an email telling you the record has been updated. The update could be new information or that a medal connected with that person has been listed for sale. Once purchased there is no further cost, you will always be eligible for update emails. Just remember to keep your email address updated.

The Register is the only automated re-unite register actively linking searcher and seller. Try it!

Re-unites noted so far:

* Nursing Sister MB Alexander, Scottish Hospital: QSA and KSA with Scottish National Red Cross Hospital and St. Andrew’s Ambulance Association Tribute Medal 1900
* Sgt-Mjr H Arnold, Australian Horse: DCM and QSA with Gunnedah and District Boer War Tribute Medal
* Lt JA Baillie, Steinaecker's Horse: DSO,QSA,Coronation 1902 with Victory Medal
* L-Cpl R Belsey 4338, 9th Lancers: MM (in a museum) with QSA,KSA,Victory Medal
* Cpl HL Byas, British South Africa Police: British War Medal with 1914-15 Star
* Pte H Clarke 5075, 6th Dragoons: QSA with KSA
* Pte G Clayden 477, Rifle Brigade: QSA with KSA
* Scout W Coles 10057, French's Scouts: QSA with KSA
* Pte FW Collins 3761, Middlesex Regiment: QSA with 1914-15 Star trio
* Pte J Cunniff 2022, Scots Guards: QSA with KSA
* Gnr HJ Davis 59257, RHA: QSA, KSA with LSGC
* Cpl A Grainger 2454, Buffs: IGS with QSA
* Pte J Gun 4384, Seaforths: Queen's Sudan with IGS and Khedive's Sudan
* Pte C Haines 4344, South Wales Borderers: QSA with KSA
* AB RJ Harris, HMS Magicienne: QSA with African General Service
* QMS 1261 T Hogan, KRRC: QSA with DCM and Militia LSGC
* Major AL Howard, Canadian Scouts: DSO and QSA with Northwest Canada medal (locally engraved)
* Cpl E Ibbotson 8226, RE: QSA with MC, DCM, 1914-15 Star
* Gnr H Jackman 85631, RFA: QSA with LSGC and Coronation 1911
* Duffadar DM Khan 1706, 18th Bengal Lancers: QSA with Order of British India
* Pte J King 3152, 19th Hussars: QSA with KSA
* Lt-Col CVB Kuper, RA: QSA with 1914-15 Star trio
* Trpr ID Mackenzie 520,  Rhodesian Regiment: QSA with BSAC
.............. and there are more.

Of course the record medals sold works the other way: identifying splits which I blogged earlier.





Saturday, 23 January 2016

Research Puzzles: FL Hide

Research Puzzles are blogs showing examples of research where some of the usual pieces are missing, like service papers or a medal roll entry.

Shoeing-Smith 3112 FL Hide 14th Hussars died of enteric fever at Fort Napier, Pietermaritzburg, Natal on 27th February 1900. He appears in the casualty roll, there are no service papers as expected for a casualty, no entry in Soldier's Effects. Surprisingly no entry has been traced in the medal rolls.

The key to unlocking the history of Shoeing-Smith Hide is his memorial plaque. The best source for memorials is The Register. Hide's life has been commemorated buy his regiment who erected a plaque for each of their casualties of the War.

Thanks to Christ Church, Seaside for opening the church.
The memorial tells us his first name, "Frank" and with this and the location of the memorial, Christ Church, Seaside, Eastbourne, East Sussex you can begin genealogical research.

Frank Leopold Hide was born in 1875 in Christchurch parish, Eastbourne to Samuel and Sarah. He was the third of 11 children. Frank enlisted into the 14th Hussars in late 1891/early 1892. In the army he learnt the trade of shoeing-smith. He served in the Anglo-Boer War in Natal with the Natal Field Force. The lack of a medal roll entry is unusual for a soldier. The cavalry rolls have been databased are on The Register. His omission from these rolls and his trade of shoeing-smith indicate that he served with the Remount Department in Natal. There are separate rolls for the Remount Department, these have only been fully databased by Ancestry whose index is highly suspect. A manual search of the Remount Department rolls have failed to find an entry for Hide. Hopefully one day his QSA will surface.

Four brothers of Frank served in the military, one Sidney Hide died during WW1 wounded at Gallipoli with the Collingwood Battalion Royal Naval Division.

If you have any Research Puzzles you need help with - please email me.


Research Puzzles: FC Froggatt

Research Puzzles are blogs which are examples of research where some of the usual pieces are missing, like service papers or a medal roll entry.

The QSA to Pte 4885 FC Froggatt 7th Hussars is currently offered by London Medals (this link will break when someone buys the medal). Froggatt earned the classic "state and date" combination of clasps: Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Transvaal, South Africa 1901 and South Africa 1902. On the surface this is an "ordinary" medal, very common for the War and without a battle bar to give any indication of what action Froggatt saw. Additionally there are no service papers, a dull medal then?

However by looking around and delving deeper we can construct a story of "the man behind the medal".

There is a WW1 Medal Index Card for a Pte FC Froggatt, 18th Hussars (5401) and 14th Hussars (4/47513). The card is stamped "1914 Star" and contains the remarks that Froggatt's application was forwarded by the OC Reserve Regiment of Cavalry (India) with a disembarkation date in 1916. The MIC also shows the application was turned down. Curious. But, is this the same FC Froggatt as fought in the Anglo-Boer War?

Additionally in The Royal Tank Corps Enlistments on FindmyPast there is an entry for Pte 19139 Frederick Charles Froggatt. This shows he transferred to the Tank Corps on 22-05-1919 from the 14th Hussars number 47513. We have a link to the MIC, but of the link to the QSA?

The Enlistment shows Froggatt enlisted into the army on 16-10-1899 at Great Yarmouth age 19 years 6 months, a clerk. So, he is old enough to have fought in the Anglo-Boer War, but what is the connection between the QSA and the MIC? The MIC and the Tank Corps enlistment make no mention of the 7th Hussars, the regiment Froggatt fought with in the War.

Using the Army Service Numbers 1881-1918 blog we can estimate the year and month of entry just using a service number. Looking at the two four digit numbers for the 7th and 18th Hussars, the five digit 14th Hussars number was issued from 1916 onwards.

Number 4885 7th Hussars was issued October 1899, number 5401 18th Hussars was issued October/November 1900. The enlistment date into the 7th Hussars number 4885 matches the enlistment date given on the Tank Corps enlistment. We now have a link between the QSA and the Tank Corps.

How can we explain the MIC, which does not mention the 7th Hussars and the four digit number for the 18th Hussars which was issued in 1900 when Froggatt was with the 7th Hussars and remained with them until after the Anglo-Boer War. The QSA medal roll does not contain any remark to show Froggatt came from or joined the 18th Hussars.

From January 1907 all service numbers for hussar regiments were issued centrally, number 5401 was issued in March 1910.

Putting all this information together gives us the following outline of Froggatt's military career:

Enlisted 1899 into the 7th Hussars for 12 years, fights in the Anglo-Boer War, transfers to the 18th Hussars March 1910 and is given a new number 5401. Froggatt's service expires 1911, he is either allowed to extend or joins the Reserves. At the outbreak of WW1 Froggatt is with the 18th Hussars, takes his discharge "time expired" and rejoins or is conscripted in 1916 into the 14th Hussars and is assigned to a Reserve Cavalry Regiment, presumably in India. Returning to the UK he is transferred to the Tank Corps in 1919. In January 1920 he is discharged and elects to join the 47th bn Royal Fusiliers who are stationed in Germany, and there the trail goes cold.

While we don't know what happened to Froggatt after 1920 the Tank Corp enlistments gives us vital and really interesting biographical data. Froggatt was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the son of RW Froggatt who was living there in 1919; great start for more research.

A humble "state and date" QSA now jumps to life with a little research and use of underused tools like enlistment dates. And of course we need to discover what the 7th Hussars did during the Anglo-Boer War - that's another blog.

If you have any Research Puzzles you need help with - please email me.




Monday, 2 November 2015

Distinguished Conduct Medal Citations


In 1899 the Distinguished Conduct Medal was the only gallantry medal that could be awarded to Other Ranks and was second in rank to the Victoria Cross. Over 2,000 DCMs were awarded for the Anglo-Boer War, it is unfortunate then, that for the vast majority of awards the citations have not survived. A significant number of awards for good service during the war and not action in the face of the enemy. Therefore when buying and or researching a DCM one cannot say for what action it was awarded.
For The Register I have been going through the DCM awards and it has become apparent that for many awards there is scope to determine the circumstances of the award. We probably won't be able to say that Pte Tommy Atkins charged with his bayonet, killing or capturing a great number of Boers. But more can be found, for example let's consider the award to Lance-Corporal 3510 William Brown (real name Fowler), 2nd bn Northumberland Fusiliers.
Fowler's medals were sold by Dix Noonan Webb the catalogue quotes from the “regimental journal”:

‘A, C, E, and F Companies sent up the Witwatersburg to clear the heights along the left flank. Stiff skirmishing on very steep and difficult ground, Boers holding heights ahead and some distant kopjes on left flank from which they kept up a heavy fire at long ranges. Privates Doyle and Jamieson of F Company were killed and four others wounded. Lance-Corporal Brown much distinguished himself here.'

This would suggest that Fowler’s DCM is for this action which has no date and just the approximate location of “Witwatersburg” – a range of hills or mountains. One is assuming too that the “Lance-Corporal Brown” is the same man as received the DCM.
That aside, Fowler’s service papers (WO97), not quoted in the catalogue, state clearly that he ‘Distinguished himself at Skeerpoort 04-08-1900' Is this the date and place of the action described in the regimental journal?

Unfortunately not, the two men mentioned as killed; Doyle (Pte W 5141) and Jamieson (Pte J 1656) are recorded as killed in action on September 5th, 1900 at Hartebeesfontein. The casualty roll confirms four were wounded at this place. So, there is significant doubt over where Brown won his DCM.

What do we know of the action at Skeerpoort on August 8th, 1900? There are no recorded casualties here for this date. The two histories of the Northumberland Fusiliers (Wood and Walker) do not help. Skeerpoort was not in The Gazetteer either, it has just been added. Skeerpoort is to the west of Pretoria below the Magaliesberg, a few kilometres east of the present day Hartebeestepoort Dam.

Eighteen men from a variety of units were casualties here (only one killed) from September 1900 to November 1901. The rugged Magaliesberg was a favourite bolt-hole for the Boers, the terrain favoured those with local knowledge. There were a few well known roads through the passes (“Neks”) that the British blocked. Later the British built a line of blockhouses across the top of the range. In early August 1900 British forces were preparing to block the Neks to prevent Christian de Wet crossing.
More reading around could reveal exactly what the Northumberland Fusiliers and Brown did to earn his DCM. It could be that Fowler's award, like others in the war were for more multiple acts over a period of time.
When I have completed work on the DCMs I will publish statistics on showing for how many DCMs the battle or location for which it was awarded are known. The challenge then is to do the research into individual awards to reveal more.