Thursday 30 June 2016

The Somme and the Anglo-Boer War

The Somme is "the battle" of World War One. Most people only know the first day - the 1st July. The battle itself lasted until 18th November, 1916.

By the 1st July, 1916 the British Expeditionary Force with many veterans of the war in South Africa had been decimated. The British forces on the Somme were composed of many thousands of new recruits - the pals battalions. So how many Anglo-Boer War veterans fought on the Somme? We won't ever get a definitive answer, but from the data collected by The Register we can hazard a guess.

The Register has recorded over 5,900 men who served in WW1, of these fifteen were killed on the 1st July 1916:

  • Bonham Carter, AT Lt Hampshire Rgt
  • Burge, M 13218 Trpr IY, Lt 3rd Hussars (Major 23rd bn Northumberland Fusiliers)
  • Firth, EH Lt, Kaffrarian Rifles (Captain 13th bn York & Lancaster Rgt)
  • Foy, T Pte 4886 King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Rgt (Sgt 4451 King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Rgt)
  • Goodhall, HO Pte 381 Militia Medical Staff Corps (Pte 10281 1st bn South Staffordshire Rgt)
  • Hague, K Pte 27978 Imperial Yeomanry (Pte 3/6931 East Yorkshire Regiment)
  • Lichfield, W Pte 4535 King’s Own Royal Lancaster Rgt (Sgt 3506 King’s Own Royal Lancaster Rgt, MM)
  • McQuade, JA Boy 6282 Essex Rgt, (Sgt, 2nd bn Essex Rgt MM)
  • Niven, AG 2nd Lt East Lancashire Rgt (Major 21st bn Northumberland Fusiliers) 
  • Pendlebury, JR Pte 429 5th bn Lancashire Fusiliers (Pte 10207 15th bn Lancashire Fusiliers)
  • Shand, SW L-Cpl 4121 IY (later Loudon-Shand Mjr Yorkshire Rgt, awarded posthumous VC)
  • Ward, J Pte 7051 Manchester Rgt (Pte 10402 15th bn Lancashire Fusiliers)
  • Williams, C Trpr 2437 South African Constabulary (Pte R-16258 2nd bn King's Royal Rifle Corps)
  • Wright, OE L-Cpl 4834 Suffolk Rgt (Sgt 18915 11th bn Suffolk Regiment)
  • Young, JW Pte 5865 South Wales Bord (Pte 15571 2nd bn South Wales Borderers)

Killed on the Somme (02-07 to 18-11-1916):

  • Andrews, CE Cpt Highland Light Infantry (Major commanding 10th bn HLI. Killed 25-10-1916)
  • Anthony, P Lt Hereford Rifle Volunteers (Major commanding 15th bn Welsh Rgt. Killed by a sniper 10-07-1916 at Mametz Wood)
  • Bailey, AF Pte 6613 Royal Sussex Rgt (L-Cpl LSR/2001 7thbn Royal Sussex Rgt 07-07-1916)
  • Blair, AM Pte 7532 Ceylon VSC Gloucester Rgt (Cpt South Lancs Rgt, killed 03-07-1916)
  • Bristow FW Sgt 5166 1st bn Welch Rgt (Pte 5166 2nd bn Welch Rgt killed 18-07-1916 Mametz)
  • Bru-de-Wold, WT, Trpr Natal Police (2nd Lt 2nd SA Infantry 15-07-1916 Delville Wood)
  • Burges, ET RSM Border Horse (1st SA Infantry 18-07-1916 Delville Wood)
  • Cameron, J Sgt  4943 Seaforth Highlanders (RSM 4th SA Infantry, killed 15-07-1916 Delville Wood)
  • Carden, RJW Lt 17th Lancers (Lt-Col 16th bn Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Killed 10-07-1916)
  • Carnegy, J Lt North Staffordshire Rgt (Major 8th bn North Staffordshire Rgt. Killed 03-07-1916)
  • Carney, M Pte 5452 West Yorkshire Rgt (L-Cpl 16233 West Yorkshire Rgt killed 23-07-1916)
  • Cave, GT Gnr 9304 RFA (Killed 20-09-1916)
  • Cheney, B Pte 4540 Leicestershire Rgt (Pte 16387 1st bn Leicestershire Rgt. Killed in action 15-09-1916)
  • Cleary, TJ Trpr 1490 SAC (Pte 2nd SAI Killed 18-07-1916, Delville Wood)
  • Collins, WG Pte 6134 Royal Welsh Fusiliers (Pte 10449 Royal Berkshire Rgt. Killed 08-07-1916)
  • Consterdine, AE Trpr 100 Lumsden's Horse (Sgt 7520 3rd bn West Yorkshire Rgt, commissioned, Cpt 9th bn West Yorkshire Rgt. Killed 26-12-1916)
  • Cox G, Pte 5945 West Surrey Rgt (Pte 12557 Royal Fusiliers. MM possibly for 01-07-1916)
  • Cox, HE Trpr 20430 Imperial Yeomanry (3384 L-Cpl Leicestershire Yeomanry. Killed 15-07-1916)
  • Crane, L Pte 7527 & 7691 King's Own Yorkshire LI (3/2979 Pte 7th bn King's Own Yorkshire LI. Killed 07-10-1916)
  • Dews, F Pte 5299 West Yorks Rgt (Acting RSM. Killed 20-09-1916)
  • Doggart, T Pte 6681 Border Rgt (Sgt 5113 Border Rgt. Killed 14-071-1916)
  • Donnelly, JP Pte 3269 East Yorks Rgt (Sgt 17469 East Yorkshire Rgt. Wounded July 1916, killed 25-09-1916)
  • Earnshaw, SO Pte 5336 Norfolk Rgt (WOII 9th bn Norfolk Rgt killed 15-09-1916) 
  • Gee, HHA Lt Uitenhage Volunteer Rifles (Major 2nd SA Infantry died of wounds 19-07-1916 Delville Wood)
  • Gove, HW Trpr 717 Imperial Light Horse (Lt 1st South African Infantry, killed July 1916, Delville Wood)
  • Halkett, P  Pte 6398 Scottish Rifles (Probably Pte 13883 2nd bn Scottish Rifles, killed 23-10-1916)
  • Hester FD Trpr 1798 Natal Police, etc. (Sgt 4908 3rd SA Infantry, posted missing July Delville Wood, declared dead 01-08-1916)
  • Hill, J Pte 5978 Manchester Rgt (11th bn Manchester Rgt, killed 26-09-1916)
  • Hindley, W Pte 5511 7th Hussars (Pte 2650 4th bn AIF, killed 24-07-1916)
  • Hodge, H L/Cpl 4544 Manchester Rgt MI (2996 Cpl. 11th bn Manchester Rgt, killed 26-09-1916)
  • Hogg, J Pte 6794 KOSB (awarded MM as Sgt, later Sgt 34869 York & Lancaster Rgt, killed 02-10-1916)
  • Howard, LM Trpr 2360 Natal Police & Lt 2 ILH (Lt-Col 24th bn Northumberland Fusiliers, died of wounds 02-07-1916)
  • Howe, H Pte 12621 RAMC (Pte G/5862 2nd bn Royal Sussex Rgt. Killed 09-09-1916 at High Wood)
  • Jameson, EL Pte 4504 Northumberland Fusiliers (Pte 8018 Northumberland Fusiliers. Twice wounded: March 1915 and 30-09-1916 during the battle of the Somme)
  • Jones, FA Cpt Welch Rgt (Lt-Col 4th SA Infantry, killed 11-07-1916 Bernafay Wood)
  • Jones, TEP Sgt 8386 Imperial Yeomanry (Captain 1st/6th Bn London Regiment. Died 15-09-1916)
  • Jones, W 4366 Royal Fusiliers (Private SR-742 9th bn Royal Fusiliers. Died 07-10-1916 at Transloy)
  • Lawrence, JL L-Cpl 8132 Royal Scots Fusiliers (Lt RSF. Wounded 01-07-1916, died 03-07-1916)
  • Malhanch, A Pte 4000 Border Rgt (Pte 6072 2nd bn Sherwood Foresters killed 16-09-1916)
  • Marcus, CP Conductor 86 ASC (Pte SPTS 3312 Royal Fusiliers/24th London Rgt killed 13-11-1916)
  • Mason, J, Pte 5371 Kings (Liverpool) Rgt (Killed 18-08-1916)
  • Marshall, R, Pte Midlands Mounted Rifles (Pte 2nd SA Infantry killed 18-07-1916)
  • Metcalfe, JC Lt West Yorkshire Rgt (Mjr 13th bn Cheshire Rgt. Killed 7-7-1916)
  • Medlicott, CE Pte 5004 Norfolk Rgt (CSM Norfolk Rgt killed 04-09-1916)
  • Murray, E Pte 6016 Gloucester Rgt (Sgt 1st bn Gloucestershire Rgt. Killed 19-07-1916)
  • Oakey, T Pte 5148 North Staffordshire Rt (L-Cpl 3/16362 Duke of Wellington's Rgt. Killed 07-07-1916)
  • Oswald, WD Lt Railway Pioneer Rgt (Lt-Col 5th Dragoon Gds. Died of wounds 16-07-1916)
  • Peacock, J Pte 3630 North Staffordshire Rgt (Sgt 9452 North Staffordshire Rgt. Killed 18-11-1916)
  • Porteous, WS Pte 785 Kaffrarian Rifles (Pte 6640 4 SA Infantry. Killed 12-10-1916)
  • Rowland, AJ Pte 5414 Essex Rgt (CSM 1st bn Essex Rgt. DoW 21-10-1916)
  • Royston-Piggott, GA Lt Northamptonshire Rgt (Lt-Col DSO killed 03-07-1916)
  • Rumbol, G Pte 4598 7th bn KRRC (Pte R-33119 12th bn KRRC. Killed 07-10-1916 Rainbow Trench)
  • Stevens, FC Sgt 76003 RA (BSM 60914 RFA, promoted Captain "D" Howitzer Bty. 158th Bde RFA. Killed 31-07-1916)
  • Strickland, F Pte  8696 Coldstream Guards (Killed 15-09-1916)
  • Taylor, CF Pte 4448 King's Royal Rifle Corps (Sgt 3-9842 9th bn Suffolk Rgt. Killed 16-09-1916)
  • Thomson, HG 4991 Sgt Royal Lancaster Rgt (A-Sgt 18265 Royal Lancaster Rgt. Killed 16-08-1916)
  • Toomer, JP Trmptr  2718 RGA (Gunner 1433 RGA. Killed 22-09-1916)
  • Tyler, CG Sgt 4398 Devon Rgt (Cpt Devon Rgt. Killed 11-07-1916)
  • Walton, F L-Cpl 2538 King's Royal Rifle Corps (CSM, later commissioned - Temporary Captain 2nd & 18th bn KRRC. Killed battle of Flers 15-09-1916)

  • Served on the Somme:

    • Aitken, T Sgt Piper 2034 Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders (Sgt-Piper S-4627 10th bn A&SH, wounded x 3, DCM)
    • Archer, J Pte 3398 Coldstream Guards (wounded 15-09-1916 near Guinchy)
    • Armstrong, JS Cpt York & Lancaster Rgt (Major 9th bn York & Lancaster Rgt)
    • Arthur, E Trpr 69 Orpen's Horse (Cpl S-13414 Cameron Highlanders, wounded 15-09-1916 Martinpuich)
    • Ashbrook, CH Pte 15907 RAMC (9th Field Ambulance 2nd Guards Bde)
    • Bastard, R, Lt Lincolnshire Rgt (Lt-Col commanding 2nd bn Lincolnshire Rgt)
    • Benn, D L/Cpl 4307 2nd Essex Rgt (2nd bn Essex Rgt)
    • Bird, EJ Pte 4048 2nd Oxford. LI (Sgt 137739 237th (Reading F/Coy) RE)
    • Birdwood, WR Cpt 11th Bengal Lancers (General commander II Anzac Corps)
    • Bowers, CD'OAC Lt 2nd VB Middlesex Rgt (Pte GS-5778 1st bn Royal West Kent Rgt, wounded 13-09-1916) 
    • Castell, W Pte 7347 2/Royal Fusiliers (SR/178 C.Q.M.S. 9/Royal Fus.)
    • Chasty, F Pte 5177 17/Lancers (4986 Pte. 2/Royal Irish Rifles) 
    • Clarke, A Pte 4659 Worcester Rgt MI (76484 Pte. RAMC, 77 Field Ambulance, 25th Div.)
    • Collier, BW Lt SWB (Lt-Col 1st bn SWB)
    • Congreve VC, WN Cpt RB (Lt-General commander 13th Army Corps)
    • Cromer, GW Pte 1804 2nd Middlesex Rgt (13th bn Middlesex Rgt)
    • Curtis, H Pte 6506 Thorneycroft's MI (2nd South African Infantry)
    • Dawson, AR Pte 5449 1st bn Northumberland Fusiliers (Driver 2055/461028  1/3rd Northumbrian Field Coy RE (50th Div)
    • De Lisle, HdeB L-Col Durham Light Infantry (General Commanding 29th Division)
    • Deedman, W Pte 8648 2nd bn KRRC MI (Pte 514 East Surrey Rgt and Driver T/312557 ASC)
    • Donohue, J Pte 5440 K.O.R. Lancs (3858 Sjt. 7/ K.O.R.L. Wounded 1/9/16, GSW R. Leg)
    • Dornan, TD Sgt 6385 ASC (Company Sergeant Major TISR/513 57th Field Ambulance (19th Div.))
    • Dymond, F Pte 5463 1st bn Rifle Bde (WOII 8th bn Rifle Bde)
    • Embleton, JW Sgt 66856 RFA (BSM 51070 - awarded DCM for the Somme (LG 04-06 & 09-07-1917)
    • Evans, G Pte 343 Scots Guards (CSM 1094718th bn Manchester Rgt, awarded VC for action 30-07-1916, Guillemont, Somme)
    • Evans, J Pte 9628 3rd bn Welch Rgt (Sgt 14795 9th bn Welsh Rgt, awarded DCM La Boiselle July 1916)
    • Fake, AC Pte 3236 Royal Fusiliers (WO1 823 Royal Fusiliers, awarded MM Ovilliers 07-07-1916 and DCM 1917 for Arras)
    • Faulkner, E Pte 7757 4th bn Rifle Bde (1st bn Rifle Bde)
    • Fullerton, T Drmr 5059 2nd bn Northamptonshire Rgt (Sgt 3/10239 2nd bn Northamptonshire Rgt(24th Bde/8th Div))
    • Gardener, S Pte 3594 2/Norfolk (3174 Pte. 11/Essex)
    • Gilbert, F S/Sjt 10658 ASC (QM/Captain W. Riding Regt.)
    • Giles, H Pte 5537  1st bn Derbyshire Rgt (Sgt 6103 12th (Pioneer) Bn. Notts & Derby. Wounded 04-07-1916)
    • Goodwyn, PCW Lt DSO East Lancashire Rgt (Lt-Col 7th bn East Lancashire Rgt)
    • Gough, HdelaP, Mjr 16th Lancers (Lt-General commander 5th Army)
    • Grant, George Trpr 37203 Scottish Horse (CSM 2605 Seaforth Highlanders, DCM for 13-11-1916 Beaumont Hamel)
    • Greenleaf, EF Gnr 33808 88th Bty. RFA (Bombardier 29th Division Artillery)
    • Greenwood, A Pte 6342 2nd bn Derbyshire Rgt MI (Pte 41116 11th bn Manchester Rgt)
    • Gwilliam, W Cpl 4258 Worcestershire Rgt (Sgt 2372 Worcestershire Rgt wounded 03-07-1916)
    • Haking, RCB Mjr Hampshire Rgt (General commander 11th Army Corps)
    • Haig, D Lt-Col 17th Lancers and Staff (General commander British Forces)
    • Haynes, TW Sgt 6339 RAMC (Sgt 12th Field Ambulance (4th Div.)
    • Holwill, WJ Sgt 3266 Devonshire Rgt (CSM 10281 8th bn Devonshire Rgt, wounded, died 22-07-1916,awarded MC)
    • Hunter-Weston, AG Mjr RE (Lt-Genl commanding VIII Corps)
    • Jones, G Pte 95 Welch Rgt (served as Pte 56613 G Ellery 1st bn RWF, wounded Delville Wood 26-08-1916)
    • Jones, SR Spr 8051 RE (Captain 179th Tunnelling Company RE)
    • Kelly, TA  Sgt 1548 Lincolnshire Rgt (Lt Royal Fusiliers awarded MC for Contalmaison on 7th - 8th July 1916 (LG 22-09-1916))
    • Lane, Charles Pte 9534 2nd bn KRRC MI (Pte A1212 2nd bn KRRC, MM LG 23/7/19)
    • Langley, J Pte 5402 2/East Surrey (169 A/Cpl. 8/East Surrey, wounded 1/7/16 foot amputated).
    • Leathers, T Pte 6372 3rd bn Border Rgt attached Oxford LI (Pte 65221 18th bn Welsh Rgt)
    • Lee, Sgt E (Topsy) 4456 (MSM) 1/Essex (To Somme 9/9/16 with rank of
    • Leigh, JH Gnr 78990 X2 Pom-Pom section, RFA (24764 Gnr. 39th D.A.C.)
    • Leland, LTH Lt IY (Lt 4th bn Worcestershire Rgt, wounded 01-07-1916 Beaumont Hamel)
    • Lever, George Cpl 5199 2nd bn Royal Scots Fusiliers (RSM 1st bn RSF. MSM)
    • Loud, C Pte 5545 1/Welsh and 6th Bn MI "B" Coy. (2038 Sjt. 9/Welsh)
    • Luxford, WJ Pte 6306 1st bn Buffs (East Kent) (6th bn Buffs. Wounded 7/10/16)
    • Maxse, FI Lt-Col Coldstream Guards (General commanding 18th Division)
    • Mayman, WA Bugler 12618 RAMC (4th Cavalry Field Ambulance, MM 11/10/16 Somme).
    • Mitchell, A 6052 Spr 1st Aberdeenshire RE Volunteers (Sgt 58650 152/Field Coy. RE (37th Div.) MM LG 03-06-1916)
    • Morris, J 4529 Pte 20th Hussars (wounded 01-07-1916 attached 26th Service Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers (3rd Tyneside Irish)) 
    • Moore, E 5875 Pte Derbyshire Rgt (awarded MM LG 21-10-1916)
    • Moult, Henry Pte 5694 1st bn Derbyshire Rgt (1/8th bn Notts and Derby. Later KIA 11-12-17)
    • Mulligan, J Pte 9205 1/Scots Guards (12086 Pte. 1/Scots Gds)
    • O'Bree, CV Trpr 27659 1 Scottish Horse (SA Infantry wounded & POW Delville Wood)
    • O'Brien, T Pte. 6473 1/West Riding Regt (3/9934 Pte 1/West Yorks)
    • O'Rourke, J Bmdr 32819 15th W.D. RGA (32819 Sjt. commissioned in the Field, 18th D.A.C.)
    • Ogilvie, A Pte 5542 2/Royal Scots Fusiliers (12755 Pte. 2/R.S.Fus.)
    • Oram, A Pte 3305 West Riding Rgt (Sgt 17355 19th bn (3rd Salford Pals) Lancashire Fusiliers, wounded 01-07-1916)
    • Paul, ET Cpl 4812 Somerset LI (RSM Somerset LI, awarded DCM for 01-07-1916, later commissioned. Died of wounds 10-09-1918)
    • Pettafor, A Gnr 13708 RFA (93627 Gnr. 15th D.A.C.) 
    • Poller (also Pollard), HT Sgt 2699 2/Warwicks (1849 C.S.M. 1/8th Warwicks wounded 27-07-1916 La Boisselle)
    • Pring, Pte J 5818 2/Rifle Bde (6492 Pte. 3/Rif. Bde.)
    • Rawlinson, Sir HS Lt-Col Coldstream Guards & Staff (General commander 4th Army)
    • Riley, T Pte 9596 1/Scots Gds (9635 Pte. 1/Scots Gds)
    • Roberts, JE Pte 4833 1/Loyal Nth Lancs (S-7233 Pte. 8/E. Lancs)
    • Routh PG, Sgt 314 Strathcona's Horse DCM (Major 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles (British Columbia Horse) awarded MC)
    • Rowe, J Pte 3300 1/Rifle Bde (S-7633 Pte. 7/Rifle Bde)
    • Stein W, Drmr 4571 East Yorks Rgt (Sgte 8412 East Yorks Rgt, awarded MM) 
    • Summers, F Lt 53rd Coy IY (Major, Tank Corps, DSO, DSC)
    • Thomas, F Pte 6068 2/DCLI (3-6076 Pte. 1/DCLI MM killed Arras 08-05-1917)
    • Thomas J, Pte 4601 Lancashire Fusiliers (Sgt 10677 South Lancashire Rgt and ROAC S/10135. Suffered shell shock Somme 02-10-1916)
    • Watkins JE, Lt IY (Lt 4th SA Infantry wounded Delville Wood, 18-07-1916)
    • Whitbread, Cpl WB 5017 3/Middx. (G1165 Sjt. 12/Middx.)

    If you can add to any of these lists - let me know.

Saturday 4 June 2016

The curious case of Henry Brummage

Pte H Brummage is listed on the Yorkshire Regiment memorial to it's dead for the Anglo-Boer war.

Yorkshire Regiment Memorial, York.
(Nigel Kirby/Loop Images gettyimages) 
However he is not shown in the official casualty roll or on the regiment's medal roll. It is possible he died after the end of the war and did not qualify for a campaign medal. Research shows this not to be the case and reveals a curious tale.

Born March 30,1882 in Norwich, Henry volunteered with 4th bn Norfolk Regiment. In February 1901 he enlisted for the Regular Army joining the Yorkshire Regiment, number 6502. Henry served in South Africa from April 1902 and would have qualified for the Queen's South Africa medal, but his name is not on the medal roll.

Evidence of his death comes from Army Registers of Soldiers' Effects, 1901-1929 where he is shown as having died at Klip River on June 7, 1902, Henry's war gratuity and other monies owing were paid to his father, Christmas Brummage.

His service papers (WO97) show that a court of enquiry found that he was absent without leave "to have committed suicide or been accidentally drowned" at Klip Drift (sic). Then there is an entry for July 1907 where Henry is subject to a court martial.

Henry's case made the national newspapers in the UK when he came before civil magistrates in Norwich before being handed over to the Army for court martial. No further detail is given except that his clothes were found on the banks of the Klip and he was presumed drowned. Obviously Henry had planned his desertion and returned to the UK without being detected and managed to live in the UK until 1907. How he was found out is not known.The court martial sentenced him to one year imprisonment with hard labour and discharge with ignominy for desertion.Thirteen days after rejoining Brummage was dismissed on July 22,1907. All former service save for five days from the end of the trial to dismissal was forfeited.

The medal roll on which soldier's who arrived in South Africa in 1902 was prepared in 1903, when he had deserted. Undoubtedly the regiment did not enter his name on the roll.

In February 11, 1911 Henry married Kathleen Mabel Stone in Norwich. On the 1911 Census, taken in March, they were man and wife with a 14 month old son called Henry, presumably Henry was the father. Henry worked as a general labourer, later he woudl work as a painter. Henry and Mabel woudl have a further three children.

On the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Henry re-enlisted in the 3rd bn Norfolk Rgt, number 8070. He declared his former service and discharge for desertion. He was discharged medically unfit after 93 days service, during which time he had four entries in the defaulter's book for being absent without leave.

In April 1915 Henry enlisted for 2/3 East Anglia Field Ambulance, RAMC. In December he transferred to the ASC, later he was posted to the Labour Corps, number 355080, then served with the 2nd, 3rd and 5th bn Bedfordshire Rgt, number 210860. Henry continued to collect numerous entries in the defaulter's book, but he did serve overseas. He was demobilised in March 1918 from the with 20% disability due to rheumatism. For his World War 1 service Henry was awarded the British War and Victory Medals and a Silver War Service Badge.

In the depressed post-war economy Henry served again with 2 East Anglia Field Ambulance, RAMC from April 1921 to May 1922. On discharge his character was "good".

Henry Brummage died in Norwich in 1960.

Source: WO97. WO363. Effects. WO100. Diss Express 19070712